大问题—《纯粹理性批判》摘录

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在《纯粹理性批判》这本巨著中到了40%的地方康德才开始谈到理性(不是说之前的不重要,而其实前面的都很重要,每句话在那里都是有原因的,是很重要的铺垫),在就哲学中一些非常重要的大问题进行了四个关键的二律背反批判之后,书里把前面讨论的概括了下:

“世 界是否有一个开端、是否它在空间中的广延有某种边界,是否在什么地方、或许在我的思维着的自我中有某种不可分的和不可破坏的单一性,还是除了可分的东两和 暂时的东西外什么也没有,是否我在我的行动中是自由的,还是像其他存在物一样由自然和命运之线引导的.最后,是否有一个至上的世界原因,还是自然物及其秩 序就构成了我们在我们的一切考察中部必须在其面前止步的最后对象。”

在这里哲学家指出了面临种种以个人利益为基础和企图的臆断时,批判和经验检验的不可缺少的重要性,妙笔生花,文字很精彩(可见康德的文字都是必须的,绝不是在那里故弄玄虚),在这里摘录如下:

“当 然,如果经验论哲学家提出他的反题没有任何其他意图,只是要打消那误解自己的真实使命的理性的冒失和狂妄,这种理性在洞见和知识本来都已终止了的地方以洞 见和知识自夸,并且想把人们在实践利益方面让其生效的东西冒充为对思辨利益的促进,以便只要有助于理性的怡然自得就中断物理研究的线索,借口要扩增知识而 把这线索连接到先验理念上,而凭借这些先念理念我们本来只认识到我们的一无所知;我说,如果经验论者满足于此,那么他的原理就会是一条准则,即在提出要求 时要节制,在做断言时要谦虚,同时通过真正被任命给我们的教师即经验来最大可能地扩展我们的知性。”

翻译评价较好的Meiklejohn英文版是这样的(网上没搜索到,只好自己打出来的,很辛苦):

In truth, if the empirical philosopher had no other purpose in the establishment of his antithesis than to check the presumption of a reason which mistakes its true destination, which boasts of its insight and its knowledge, just where all insight and knowledge cease to exist, and regards that which is valid only in relation to a practical interest, as an advancement of the speculative interests of the mind (in order, when it is convenient for itself, to break the thread of our physical investigations, and, under pretence of extending our cognition, connect them with transcendental ideas, by means of which we really know nothing), if, I say, the empiricist rested satisfied with this benefit, the principle advanced by him would be a maxim recommending moderation in the pretensions of reason and modesty in its affirmations, and at the same time would direct us to the right mode of extending the province of the understanding, by the help of the only true teacher, experience.

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