活着的唯一价值就是思考—《西方精神分析经典案例集》

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本书由海外学成归来的华东师大教授徐光兴主编,华东师大心理健康辅导中心一众辅导老师编写,2012年吉林出版集团出版,401页。 虽然封面上写着“心理咨询师职业资格考试辅导用书”,但即使对于业余人士来讲,图书汇集了西方精神分析各流派各大师的精彩实战案例,深入浅出地了解弗洛伊德、荣格、阿德勒、罗杰斯、艾利斯等大师巨匠看问题的角度,也是非常有意思的一本读物。

全书按心理学发展的时间顺序,共整理了19个原作者给出的案例,先介绍作者,随后是心理学大师的案例原文,最后是编者的分析。对了解现代心理学的发展、各流派的方法及优缺点进行了较为概括性的介绍。

弗洛伊德:现代心理学创始人,提倡“精神分析”、心理动力学,强调“性”在个人心理发展中的重要作用(有他说的那么重要吗?),擅长从梦解析人的潜意识(其实我个人的经验是,人不可能重复的做一个梦,而且不可能清晰地记得梦的细节)。认为信任是心理治疗的基础。书中举出的两个例子让人对弗洛伊德的深刻见解拍案叫绝。

荣格:曾与弗洛伊德共事但后来决裂。梦和神秘主义。强调人类集体潜意识的重要作用。对中国的古代思想(道德经、佛教、阴阳及易经)有研究和应用。当代企业培训中流行的DISC、红黄蓝绿性格法即出自荣格之手。这里的两个案例也非常不错,“一个人不接受容纳自己的阴暗面,就不可能获得人格的成长。”

阿德勒:心理分析人本流派的奠基人。 对教育学有深远影响。其《超越自卑》广为传颂。案例中对自私者的心理成因有深刻分析,强调人是社会动物。读者绝对会为阿德勒对人性的深入见解和深刻思考而震撼。这个案例也是我标注最多的章节。

Pierre Janet:法国心理分析大师,行为心理学的创始人之一。引入催眠术进行心理咨询。案例强调了万事皆有因,不存在什么魔鬼,人的潜意识和情绪压抑可能会造成巨大的恶果。

罗杰斯:人本心理分析大师,主张相信人性本善,绝对尊重病人,帮助其人性发展。我看过他的《个人形成论》、《著作精粹》。这个案例翻译的一般。有人说他的方法有些唯心,不过这个世界有时候必须唯心。

埃里克森:催眠大师、心理分析著名代表人物。案例对一些抽象图案的潜意识解析很神奇。

阿克曼:美国很多心理咨询师都是犹太人,而且是俄罗斯过去的犹太人。这位Ackerman也不例外。擅长“家庭治疗” 。这个案例说明了,很多患病儿童的病,其实是为了吸引大人的爱而装出来的。

艾利斯:合理情绪疗法的发明者。通过这个案例我第一次了解到,受虐狂的内心是多么的痛苦,经历过多少折磨。对基督教、圣保罗、耶稣进行了无情的攻击和批判。

Eric Berne:麦吉尔大学培养出来的加拿大人。相互作用分析的代表人物,强化患者的成人心态,增强他的心理素质来提高他应对病态挑战的能力。一般以团体方式进行。这个案例说明了,咨询师的积极正面坦诚耐心迂回等等方面的素质有多么重要。

伯顿:存在主义疗法代表,强调帮助患者处理生存的各个问题,如生存问题、死亡问题、自由问题以及对自己和他人的责任等问题。将存在主题呈现于患者面前,让患者面对这些问题,对这些问题负责。

沃尔普:脱敏疗法的集大成者。这个案例非常生动地说明了咨询师如何让患者从交通恐惧症中走出来的成功经验。

Michael Patton:移情(应该是Empathy吧)在心理咨询中的作用。

Barbara McCrady:她的研究很实用,专门针对酗酒、吸毒等上瘾问题。案例说明,在治疗这样的患者时,找到切入点非常重要。

Petruska Clarkson:这是为综合各大家所长、追求融合的英国心理分析大师。案例是一个被强奸的年轻女性的创伤后应急障碍治疗的过程,Clarkson可谓各种手段全上,五花八门,可惜案例翻译、整理的全书最差。

Maria Gilbert:擅长综合疗法治疗夫妻关系。这个案例就是一对婚姻濒临危险的夫妻,咨询师深入了解了两人的心理后成功的改善了两人的关系。

Raymond Di Giuseppe:与Ellis同事的合理情绪疗法大师。案例用治愈一个自闭症10岁男孩的故事,讲述了合理情绪疗法综合利用各种技术的奥妙:引发结果的往往不是诱发事件本身,而是事件带来的观念看法的改变。精彩的案例。

Salvador Minuchin:结构派家庭疗法开山鼻祖。强调在家庭中某个人的问题可能只是冰山一角,需要全家共同参与治疗才能从根本上解决问题。最好的留在最后,这个很赞的案例以对一个半身不遂的小女孩的治疗,显示出了Minuchin的善于观察、敢于假设、清官勇断家务事的能力,各种手段也花样百出。

其实严格的说,我们每个人都有这样那样的心理问题,懂点心理学,认识到人性以及生活的复杂性,让我们更加清晰的认定目标,不受情感左右,看看这些案例及大师们分析、处理的方式,至少我个人是开卷有益,全书两天看完了。

心理学和科幻有什么关系?阿西莫夫的《基地系列》里有个“骡子”就是通过精神控制,控制了整个宇宙;电脑游戏“Starcraft”里,两个暗黑圣斗士合成的红球,可以进化出Mind Control的科技,任敌方再强的兵种,也能转化成己方力量。

全书PDF版下载:http://pan.baidu.com/s/1pJt6NYN

《传道书》

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按:下面是《圣经 旧约 传道书》的转载,传为古耶路撒冷王所罗门所作,最近看的两本书里都有引用,在西方文学及思想里占有极重要的位置,很多现在英语里的典故,如”The sun also rises”(太阳照常升起),”There is no new things under the sun”(日光下面无新事)等等都来源于此。全文不长,但是西方重要的智慧言论,转载下供参考。

《传道书》主旨只有一个,万事虚空,人生虚空,只有信神,才能得救。也许智慧都悲观,我不反对人生虚空一说,但我觉得这有点像佛教的出世:人必须先入世才有资格谈出世,必须先经历种种喜怒哀乐才能真正修得自己的智慧。

 

 

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 1 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )  

1:1 在耶路撒冷作王,大卫的儿子,传道者的言语。
The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem.

1:2 传道者说,虚空的虚空,虚空的虚空。凡事都是虚空。
Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity.

1:3 人一切的劳碌,就是他在日光之下的劳碌,有什么益处呢。
What profit hath a man of all his labour which he taketh under the sun?

1:4 一代过去,一代又来。地却永远长存。
One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth abideth for ever.

1:5 日头出来,日头落下,急归所出之地。
The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose.

1:6 风往南刮,又向北转,不住的旋转,而且返回转行原道。
The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth about unto the north; it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth again according to his circuits.

1:7 江河都往海里流,海却不满。江河从何处流,仍归何处。
All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full; unto the place from whence the rivers come, thither they return again.

1:8 万事令人厌烦。(或作万物满有困乏)人不能说尽。眼看,看不饱,耳听,听不足。
All things are full of labour; man cannot utter it: the eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear filled with hearing.

1:9 已有的事,后必再有。已行的事,后必再行。日光之下并无新事。
The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; and that which is done is that which shall be done: and there is no new thing under the sun.

1:10 岂有一件事人能指着说,这是新的。那知,在我们以前的世代,早已有了。
Is there any thing whereof it may be said, See, this is new? it hath been already of old time, which was before us.

1:11 已过的世代,无人记念,将来的世代,后来的人也不记念。
There is no remembrance of former things; neither shall there be any remembrance of things that are to come with those that shall come after.

1:12 我传道者在耶路撒冷作过以色列的王。
I the Preacher was king over Israel in Jerusalem.

1:13 我专心用智慧寻求查究天下所作的一切事,乃知神叫世人所经练的,是极重的劳苦。
And I gave my heart to seek and search out by wisdom concerning all things that are done under heaven: this sore travail hath God given to the sons of man to be exercised therewith.

1:14 我见日光之下所作的一切事,都是虚空,都是捕风。
I have seen all the works that are done under the sun; and, behold, all is vanity and vexation of spirit.

1:15 弯曲的不能变直,缺少的不能足数。
That which is crooked cannot be made straight: and that which is wanting cannot be numbered.

1:16 我心里议论,说,我得了大智慧,胜过我以前在耶路撒冷的众人。而且我心中多经历智慧,和知识的事。
I communed with mine own heart, saying, Lo, I am come to great estate, and have gotten more wisdom than all they that have been before me in Jerusalem: yea, my heart had great experience of wisdom and knowledge.

1:17 我又专心察明智慧,狂妄,和愚昧。乃知道也是捕风。
And I gave my heart to know wisdom, and to know madness and folly: I perceived that this also is vexation of spirit.

1:18 因为多有智慧,就多有愁烦。加增知识的,就加增忧伤。
For in much wisdom is much grief: and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow.

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 2 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )

2:1 我心里说,来吧,我以喜乐试试你,你好享福。谁知道,这也是虚空。
I said in mine heart, Go to now, I will prove thee with mirth, therefore enjoy pleasure: and, behold, this also is vanity.

2:2 我指嬉笑说,这是狂妄。论喜乐说,有何功效呢。
I said of laughter, It is mad: and of mirth, What doeth it?

2:3 我心里察究,如何用酒使我肉体舒畅,我心却仍以智慧引导我。又如何持住愚昧,等我看明世人,在天下一生当行何事为美。
I sought in mine heart to give myself unto wine, yet acquainting mine heart with wisdom; and to lay hold on folly, till I might see what was that good for the sons of men, which they should do under the heaven all the days of their life.

2:4 我为自己动大工程,建造房屋,栽种葡萄园,
I made me great works; I builded me houses; I planted me vineyards:

2:5 修造园囿,在其中栽种各样果木树,
I made me gardens and orchards, and I planted trees in them of all kind of fruits:

2:6 挖造水池,用以浇灌嫩小的树木。
I made me pools of water, to water therewith the wood that bringeth forth trees:

2:7 我买了仆婢,也有生在家中的仆婢。又有许多牛群羊群,胜过以前在耶路撒冷众人所有的。
I got me servants and maidens, and had servants born in my house; also I had great possessions of great and small cattle above all that were in Jerusalem before me:

2:8 我又为自己积蓄金银,和君王的财宝,并各省的财宝。又得唱歌的男女,和世人所喜爱的物,并许多的妃嫔。
I gathered me also silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of kings and of the provinces: I gat me men singers and women singers, and the delights of the sons of men, as musical instruments, and that of all sorts.

2:9 这样,我就日见昌盛,胜过以前在耶路撒冷的众人。我的智慧仍然存留。
So I was great, and increased more than all that were before me in Jerusalem: also my wisdom remained with me.

2:10 凡我眼所求的,我没有留下不给他的。我心所乐的,我没有禁止不享受的。因我的心为我一切所劳碌的快乐。这就是我从劳碌中所得的分。
And whatsoever mine eyes desired I kept not from them, I withheld not my heart from any joy; for my heart rejoiced in all my labour: and this was my portion of all my labour.

2:11 后来我察看我手所经营的一切事,和我劳碌所成的功。谁知都是虚空,都是捕风,在日光之下毫无益处。
Then I looked on all the works that my hands had wrought, and on the labour that I had laboured to do: and, behold, all was vanity and vexation of spirit, and there was no profit under the sun.

2:12 我转念观看智慧,狂妄,和愚昧。在王以后而来的人,还能作什么呢。也不过行早先所行的就是了。
And I turned myself to behold wisdom, and madness, and folly: for what can the man do that cometh after the king? even that which hath been already done.

2:13 我便看出智慧胜过愚昧,如同光明胜过黑暗。
Then I saw that wisdom excelleth folly, as far as light excelleth darkness.

2:14 智慧人的眼目光明,(光明原文作在他头上)愚昧人在黑暗里行。我却看明有一件事,这两等人都必遇见。
The wise man’s eyes are in his head; but the fool walketh in darkness: and I myself perceived also that one event happeneth to them all.

2:15 我就心里说,愚昧人所遇见的,我也必遇见。我为何更有智慧呢。我心里说,这也是虚空。
Then said I in my heart, As it happeneth to the fool, so it happeneth even to me; and why was I then more wise? Then I said in my heart, that this also is vanity.

2:16 智慧人,和愚昧人一样,永远无人记念。因为日后都被忘记。可叹智慧人死亡,与愚昧人无异。
For there is no remembrance of the wise more than of the fool for ever; seeing that which now is in the days to come shall all be forgotten. And how dieth the wise man? as the fool.

2:17 我所以恨恶生命,因为在日光之下所行的事我都以为烦恼。都是虚空,都是捕风。
Therefore I hated life; because the work that is wrought under the sun is grievous unto me: for all is vanity and vexation of spirit.

2:18 我恨恶一切的劳碌,就是我在日光之下的劳碌。因为我得来的必留给我以后的人。
Yea, I hated all my labour which I had taken under the sun: because I should leave it unto the man that shall be after me.

2:19 那人是智慧,是愚昧,谁能知道。他竟要管理我劳碌所得的,就是我在日光之下用智慧所得的。这也是虚空。
And who knoweth whether he shall be a wise man or a fool? yet shall he have rule over all my labour wherein I have laboured, and wherein I have shewed myself wise under the sun. This is also vanity.

2:20 故此,我转想我在日光之下所劳碌的一切工作,心便绝望。
Therefore I went about to cause my heart to despair of all the labour which I took under the sun.

2:21 因为有人用智慧知识灵巧所劳碌得来的,却要留给未曾劳碌的人为分。这也是虚空,也是大患。
For there is a man whose labour is in wisdom, and in knowledge, and in equity; yet to a man that hath not laboured therein shall he leave it for his portion. This also is vanity and a great evil.

2:22 人在日光之下劳碌累心,在他一切的劳碌人得着什么呢。
For what hath man of all his labour, and of the vexation of his heart, wherein he hath laboured under the sun?

2:23 因为他日日忧虑,他的劳苦成为愁烦。连夜间心也不安。这也是虚空。
For all his days are sorrows, and his travail grief; yea, his heart taketh not rest in the night. This is also vanity.

2:24 人莫强如吃喝,且在劳碌中享福。我看这也是出于神的手。
There is nothing better for a man, than that he should eat and drink, and that he should make his soul enjoy good in his labour. This also I saw, that it was from the hand of God.

2:25 论到吃用,享福,谁能胜过我呢。
For who can eat, or who else can hasten hereunto, more than I?

2:26 神喜悦谁,就给谁智慧,知识,和喜乐。惟有罪人,神使他劳苦,叫他将所收聚的,所堆积的,归给神所喜悦的人。这也是虚空,也是捕风。
For God giveth to a man that is good in his sight wisdom, and knowledge, and joy: but to the sinner he giveth travail, to gather and to heap up, that he may give to him that is good before God. This also is vanity and vexation of spirit.

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 3 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )

3:1 凡事都有定期,天下万务都有定时。
To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven:

3:2 生有时,死有时。栽种有时,拔出所栽种的,也有时。
A time to be born, and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted;

3:3 杀戮有时,医治有时。拆毁有时,建造有时。
A time to kill, and a time to heal; a time to break down, and a time to build up;

3:4 哭有时,笑有时。哀恸有时,跳舞有时。
A time to weep, and a time to laugh; a time to mourn, and a time to dance;

3:5 抛掷石头有时,堆聚石头有时。怀抱有时,不怀抱有时。
A time to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones together; a time to embrace, and a time to refrain from embracing;

3:6 寻梢有时,失落有时。保守有时,舍弃有时。
A time to get, and a time to lose; a time to keep, and a time to cast away;

3:7 撕裂有时,缝补有时。静默有时,言语有时。
A time to rend, and a time to sew; a time to keep silence, and a time to speak;

3:8 喜爱有时,恨恶有时。争战有时,和好有时。
A time to love, and a time to hate; a time of war, and a time of peace.

3:9 这样看来,作事的人在他的劳碌上有什么益处呢。
What profit hath he that worketh in that wherein he laboureth?

3:10 我见神叫世人劳苦,使他们在其中受经练。
I have seen the travail, which God hath given to the sons of men to be exercised in it.

3:11 神造万物,各按其时成为美好。又将永生安置在世人心里。(永生原文作永远)然而神从始至终的作为,人不能叁透。
He hath made every thing beautiful in his time: also he hath set the world in their heart, so that no man can find out the work that God maketh from the beginning to the end.

3:12 我知道世人,莫强如终身喜乐行善。
I know that there is no good in them, but for a man to rejoice, and to do good in his life.

3:13 并且人人吃喝,在他一切劳碌中享福。这也是神的恩赐。
And also that every man should eat and drink, and enjoy the good of all his labour, it is the gift of God.

3:14 我知道神一切所作的,都必永存,无所增添,无所减少。神这样行,是要人在他面前存敬畏的心。
I know that, whatsoever God doeth, it shall be for ever: nothing can be put to it, nor any thing taken from it: and God doeth it, that men should fear before him.

3:15 现今的事早先就有了。经来的事早已也有了。并且神使已过的事重新再来。(或作并且神再寻回已过的事)
That which hath been is now; and that which is to be hath already been; and God requireth that which is past.

3:16 我又见日光之下,在审判之处有奸恶。在公义之处也有奸恶。
And moreover I saw under the sun the place of judgment, that wickedness was there; and the place of righteousness, that iniquity was there.

3:17 我心里说,神必审判义人和恶人。因为在那里,各样事务,一切工作,都有定时。
I said in mine heart, God shall judge the righteous and the wicked: for there is a time there for every purpose and for every work.

3:18 我心里说,这乃为世人的缘故,是神要试验他们,使他们觉得自己不过像兽一样。
I said in mine heart concerning the estate of the sons of men, that God might manifest them, and that they might see that they themselves are beasts.

3:19 因为世人遭遇的,兽也遭遇。所遭遇的都是一样。这个怎样死,那个也怎样死。气息都是一样。人不能强于兽。都是虚空。
For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them: as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that a man hath no preeminence above a beast: for all is vanity.

3:20 都归一处。都是出于尘土,也都归于尘土。
All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again.

3:21 谁知道人的灵是往上升,兽的魂是下入地呢。
Who knoweth the spirit of man that goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast that goeth downward to the earth?

3:22 故此,我见人,莫强如他经营的事上喜乐。因为这是他的分。他身后的事,谁能使他回来得见呢。
Wherefore I perceive that there is nothing better, than that a man should rejoice in his own works; for that is his portion: for who shall bring him to see what shall be after him?

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 4 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )

4:1 我又转念,见日光之下所行的一切欺压。看哪,受欺压的流泪,且无人安慰。欺压他们的有势力,也无人安慰他们。
So I returned, and considered all the oppressions that are done under the sun: and behold the tears of such as were oppressed, and they had no comforter; and on the side of their oppressors there was power; but they had no comforter.

4:2 因此,我赞叹那早已死的死人,胜过那还活着的活人。
Wherefore I praised the dead which are already dead more than the living which are yet alive.

4:3 并且我以为那未曾生的,就是未见过日光之下恶事的,比这两等人更强。
Yea, better is he than both they, which hath not yet been, who hath not seen the evil work that is done under the sun.

4:4 我又见人为一切的劳碌,和各样灵巧的工作,就被邻舍嫉妒。这也是虚空,也是捕风。
Again, I considered all travail, and every right work, that for this a man is envied of his neighbour. This is also vanity and vexation of spirit.

4:5 愚昧人抱着手,吃自己的肉。
The fool foldeth his hands together, and eateth his own flesh.

4:6 满了一把,得享安静,强如满了两把,劳碌捕风。
Better is an handful with quietness, than both the hands full with travail and vexation of spirit.

4:7 我又转念,见日光之下有一件虚空的事。
Then I returned, and I saw vanity under the sun.

4:8 有人孤单无二,无子,无兄,竟劳碌不息,眼目也不以钱财为足。(他说)我劳劳碌碌,刻苦自己,不享福乐,到底是为谁呢。这也是虚空,是极重的劳苦。
There is one alone, and there is not a second; yea, he hath neither child nor brother: yet is there no end of all his labour; neither is his eye satisfied with riches; neither saith he, For whom do I labour, and bereave my soul of good? This is also vanity, yea, it is a sore travail.

4:9 两个人总比一个人好,因为二人劳碌同得美好的果效。
Two are better than one; because they have a good reward for their labour.

4:10 若是跌倒,这人可以扶起他的同伴。若是孤身跌倒,没有别人扶起他来。这人就有祸了。
For if they fall, the one will lift up his fellow: but woe to him that is alone when he falleth; for he hath not another to help him up.

4:11 再者,二人同睡,就都暖和。一人独睡,怎能暖和呢。
Again, if two lie together, then they have heat: but how can one be warm alone?

4:12 有人功胜孤身一人,若有二人便能敌挡他。三股合成的绳子,不容易折断。
And if one prevail against him, two shall withstand him; and a threefold cord is not quickly broken.

4:13 贫穷而有智慧的少年人,胜过年老不肯纳谏的愚昧王。
Better is a poor and a wise child than an old and foolish king, who will no more be admonished.

4:14 这人是从监牢中出来作王。在他国中,生来原是贫穷的。
For out of prison he cometh to reign; whereas also he that is born in his kingdom becometh poor.

4:15 我见日光之下一切行动的活人,都随从那第二位,就是起来替老王的少年人。
I considered all the living which walk under the sun, with the second child that shall stand up in his stead.

4:16 他所治理的众人,就是他的百姓,多得无数。在他后来的人,尚且不喜悦他。这是虚空,也是捕风。
There is no end of all the people, even of all that have been before them: they also that come after shall not rejoice in him. Surely this also is vanity and vexation of spirit.

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 5 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )

5:1 你到神的殿,要谨慎脚步。因为近前听,胜过愚昧人献祭,(或作胜过献愚昧人的祭)他们本不知道所作的是恶。
Keep thy foot when thou goest to the house of God, and be more ready to hear, than to give the sacrifice of fools: for they consider not that they do evil.

5:2 你在神面前不可冒失开口,也不可心急发言。因为神在天上,你在地下,所以你的言语要寡少。
Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be hasty to utter any thing before God: for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth: therefore let thy words be few.

5:3 事务多,就令人作梦,言语多,就显出愚昧。
For a dream cometh through the multitude of business; and a fool’s voice is known by multitude of words.

5:4 你向神许愿,偿还不可迟延。因他不喜悦愚昧人。所以你许的愿应当偿还。
When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it; for he hath no pleasure in fools: pay that which thou hast vowed.

5:5 你许愿不还,不如不许。
Better is it that thou shouldest not vow, than that thou shouldest vow and not pay.

5:6 不可任你的口使肉体犯罪。也不可在祭司(原文作使者)面前说是错许了。为何使神因你的声音发怒,败坏你手所作的呢。
Suffer not thy mouth to cause thy flesh to sin; neither say thou before the angel, that it was an error: wherefore should God be angry at thy voice, and destroy the work of thine hands?

5:7 多梦和多言,其中多有虚幻。你只要敬畏神。
For in the multitude of dreams and many words there are also divers vanities: but fear thou God.

5:8 你若在一省之中见穷人受人欺压,并夺去公义公平的事,不要因此诧异。因有一位高过居高位的鉴察。在他们以上还有更高的。
If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and violent perverting of judgment and justice in a province, marvel not at the matter: for he that is higher than the highest regardeth; and there be higher than they.

5:9 况且地的益处归众人。就是君王也受田地的供应。
Moreover the profit of the earth is for all: the king himself is served by the field.

5:10 贪爱银子的,不因得银子知足。贪爱丰富的,也不因得利益知足。这也是虚空。
He that loveth silver shall not be satisfied with silver; nor he that loveth abundance with increase: this is also vanity.

5:11 货物增添,吃的人也增添。物主得什么呢,不过眼看而已。
When goods increase, they are increased that eat them: and what good is there to the owners thereof, saving the beholding of them with their eyes?

5:12 劳碌的人,不拘吃多吃少,睡得香甜。富足的丰满,却不容他睡觉。
The sleep of a labouring man is sweet, whether he eat little or much: but the abundance of the rich will not suffer him to sleep.

5:13 我见日光之下,有一宗大祸患,就是财主积存赀财,反害自己。
There is a sore evil which I have seen under the sun, namely, riches kept for the owners thereof to their hurt.

5:14 因遭遇祸患,这些赀财就消灭。那人若生了儿子,手里也一无所有。
But those riches perish by evil travail: and he begetteth a son, and there is nothing in his hand.

5:15 他怎样从母胎赤身而来,也必照样赤身而去。他所劳碌得来的。手中分毫不能带去。
As he came forth of his mother’s womb, naked shall he return to go as he came, and shall take nothing of his labour, which he may carry away in his hand.

5:16 他来的情形怎样,他去的情形也怎样。这也是一宗大祸患。他为风劳碌有什么益处呢。
And this also is a sore evil, that in all points as he came, so shall he go: and what profit hath he that hath laboured for the wind?

5:17 并且他终身在黑暗中吃喝,多有烦恼,又有病患呕气。
All his days also he eateth in darkness, and he hath much sorrow and wrath with his sickness.

5:18 我所见为善为美的,就是人在神赐他一生的日子吃喝,享受日光之下劳碌得来的好处。因为这是他的分。
Behold that which I have seen: it is good and comely for one to eat and to drink, and to enjoy the good of all his labour that he taketh under the sun all the days of his life, which God giveth him: for it is his portion.

5:19 神赐人赀财丰富,使他能以吃用,能取自己的分,在他劳碌中喜乐。这乃是神的恩赐。
Every man also to whom God hath given riches and wealth, and hath given him power to eat thereof, and to take his portion, and to rejoice in his labour; this is the gift of God.

5:20 他不多思念自己一生的年日。因为神应他的心使他喜乐。
For he shall not much remember the days of his life; because God answereth him in the joy of his heart.

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 6 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )

6:1 我见日光之下有一宗祸患,重压在人身上。
There is an evil which I have seen under the sun, and it is common among men:

6:2 就是人蒙神赐他赀财,丰富,尊荣,以致他心里所愿的一样都不缺,只是神使他不能吃用,反有外人来吃用。这是虚空,也是祸患。
A man to whom God hath given riches, wealth, and honour, so that he wanteth nothing for his soul of all that he desireth, yet God giveth him not power to eat thereof, but a stranger eateth it: this is vanity, and it is an evil disease.

6:3 人若生一百个儿子,活了许多岁数,以致他的年日甚多,心里却不得满享福乐,又不得埋葬。据我说,那不到期而落的胎比他倒好。
If a man beget an hundred children, and live many years, so that the days of his years be many, and his soul be not filled with good, and also that he have no burial; I say, that an untimely birth is better than he.

6:4 因为虚虚而来,暗暗而去,名字被黑暗遮蔽。
For he cometh in with vanity, and departeth in darkness, and his name shall be covered with darkness.

6:5 并且没有见过天日,也无知觉。这胎,比那人倒享安息。
Moreover he hath not seen the sun, nor known any thing: this hath more rest than the other.

6:6 那人虽然活千年,再活千年,却不享福,众人岂不都归一个地方去吗。
Yea, though he live a thousand years twice told, yet hath he seen no good: do not all go to one place?

6:7 人的劳碌都为口腹,心里却不知足。
All the labour of man is for his mouth, and yet the appetite is not filled.

6:8 这样看来,智慧人比愚昧人有什么长处呢。穷人在众人面前知道如何行,有什么长处呢。
For what hath the wise more than the fool? what hath the poor, that knoweth to walk before the living?

6:9 眼睛所看的,比心里妄想的倒好。这也是虚空,也是捕风。
Better is the sight of the eyes than the wandering of the desire: this is also vanity and vexation of spirit.

6:10 先前所有的,早已起了名。并知道何为人。他也不能与那比自己力大的相争。
That which hath been is named already, and it is known that it is man: neither may he contend with him that is mightier than he.

6:11 加增虚浮的事既多,这与人有什么益处呢。
Seeing there be many things that increase vanity, what is man the better?

6:12 人一生虚度的日子,就如影儿经过。谁知道什么与他有益呢。谁能告诉他身后在日光之下有什么事呢。
For who knoweth what is good for man in this life, all the days of his vain life which he spendeth as a shadow? for who can tell a man what shall be after him under the sun?

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 7 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )

7:1 名誉强如美好的膏油。人死的日子,胜过人生的日子。
A good name is better than precious ointment; and the day of death than the day of one’s birth.

7:2 往遭丧的家去,强如往宴乐的家去,因为死是众人的结局。活人也必将这事放在心上。
It is better to go to the house of mourning, than to go to the house of feasting: for that is the end of all men; and the living will lay it to his heart.

7:3 忧愁强如喜笑,因为面带愁容,终必使心喜乐。
Sorrow is better than laughter: for by the sadness of the countenance the heart is made better.

7:4 智慧人的心,在遭丧之家。愚昧人的心,在快乐之家。
The heart of the wise is in the house of mourning; but the heart of fools is in the house of mirth.

7:5 听智慧人的责备,强如听愚昧人的歌唱。
It is better to hear the rebuke of the wise, than for a man to hear the song of fools.

7:6 愚昧人的笑声,好像锅下烧荆棘的爆声,这也是虚空。
For as the crackling of thorns under a pot, so is the laughter of the fool: this also is vanity.

7:7 勒索使智慧人变为愚妄。贿赂能败坏人的慧心。
Surely oppression maketh a wise man mad; and a gift destroyeth the heart.

7:8 事情的终局,强如事情的起头。存心忍耐的,胜过居心骄傲的。
Better is the end of a thing than the beginning thereof: and the patient in spirit is better than the proud in spirit.

7:9 你不要心里急躁恼怒,因为恼怒存在愚昧人的怀中。
Be not hasty in thy spirit to be angry: for anger resteth in the bosom of fools.

7:10 不要说,先前的日子强过如今的日子,是什么缘故呢。你这样问,不是出于智慧。
Say not thou, What is the cause that the former days were better than these? for thou dost not enquire wisely concerning this.

7:11 智慧和产业并好。而且见天日的人,得智慧更为有益。
Wisdom is good with an inheritance: and by it there is profit to them that see the sun.

7:12 因为智慧护庇人,好像银钱护庇人一样。惟独智慧能保全智慧人的生命,这就是知识的益处。
For wisdom is a defence, and money is a defence: but the excellency of knowledge is, that wisdom giveth life to them that have it.

7:13 你要察看神的作为,因为神使为曲的,谁能变为直呢。
Consider the work of God: for who can make that straight, which he hath made crooked?

7:14 遇亨通的日子,你当喜乐。遭患难的日子,你当思想。因为神使这两样并列,为的是叫人查不出身后有什么事。
In the day of prosperity be joyful, but in the day of adversity consider: God also hath set the one over against the other, to the end that man should find nothing after him.

7:15 有义人行义,反致灭亡。有恶人行恶,倒享长寿。这都是我在虚度之日中所见过的。
All things have I seen in the days of my vanity: there is a just man that perisheth in his righteousness, and there is a wicked man that prolongeth his life in his wickedness.

7:16 不要行义过分。也不要过于自逞智慧。何必自取败亡呢。
Be not righteous over much; neither make thyself over wise: why shouldest thou destroy thyself ?

7:17 不要行恶过分。也不要为人愚昧。何必不到期而死呢。
Be not over much wicked, neither be thou foolish: why shouldest thou die before thy time?

7:18 你持守这个为美。那个也不要松手。因为敬畏神的人,必从这两样出来。
It is good that thou shouldest take hold of this; yea, also from this withdraw not thine hand: for he that feareth God shall come forth of them all.

7:19 智慧使有智慧的人,比城中十个官长更有能力。
Wisdom strengtheneth the wise more than ten mighty men which are in the city.

7:20 时常行善而不犯罪的义人,世上实在没有。
For there is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not.

7:21 人所说的一切话,你不要放在心上,恐怕听见你的仆人咒诅你。
Also take no heed unto all words that are spoken; lest thou hear thy servant curse thee:

7:22 因为你心里知道,自己也曾屡次咒诅别人。
For oftentimes also thine own heart knoweth that thou thyself likewise hast cursed others.

7:23 我曾用智慧试验这一切事。我说,要得智慧,智慧却离我远。
All this have I proved by wisdom: I said, I will be wise; but it was far from me.

7:24 万事之理离我甚远,而且最深,谁能测透呢。
That which is far off, and exceeding deep, who can find it out?

7:25 我转念,一心要知道,要考察,要寻求智慧,和万事的理由。又要知道邪恶为愚昧,愚昧为狂妄。
I applied mine heart to know, and to search, and to seek out wisdom, and the reason of things, and to know the wickedness of folly, even of foolishness and madness:

7:26 我得知有等妇人,比死还苦,她的心是网罗,手是锁练。凡蒙神喜悦的人,必能躲避她。
And I find more bitter than death the woman, whose heart is snares and nets, and her hands as bands: whoso pleaseth God shall escape from her; but the sinner shall be taken by her.

7:27 有罪的人,却被她缠住了。
Behold, this have I found, saith the preacher, counting one by one, to find out the account:

7:28 传道者说,看哪,一千男子中,我找到一个正直人。但众女子中,没有找到一个。我将这事一一比较,要寻求其理,我心仍要寻梢,却未曾找到。
Which yet my soul seeketh, but I find not: one man among a thousand have I found; but a woman among all those have I not found.

7:29 我所找到的,只有一件,就是神造人原是正直,但他们寻出许多巧计。
Lo, this only have I found, that God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions.

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 8 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )

8:1 谁如智慧人呢。谁知道事情的解释呢。人的智慧使他的脸发光,并使他的脸上的暴气改变。
Who is as the wise man? and who knoweth the interpretation of a thing? a man’s wisdom maketh his face to shine, and the boldness of his face shall be changed.

8:2 我劝你遵守王的命令。既指神起誓,理当如此。
I counsel thee to keep the king’s commandment, and that in regard of the oath of God.

8:3 不要急躁离开王的面前。不要固执行恶。因为他凡事都随自己的心意而行。
Be not hasty to go out of his sight: stand not in an evil thing; for he doeth whatsoever pleaseth him.

8:4 王的话本有权力,谁敢问他说,你作什么呢。
Where the word of a king is, there is power: and who may say unto him, What doest thou?

8:5 凡遵守命令的,必不经历祸患。智慧人的心,能辨明时候和定理。(原文作审判下节同)
Whoso keepeth the commandment shall feel no evil thing: and a wise man’s heart discerneth both time and judgment.

8:6 各样事务成就,都有时候和定理。因为人的苦难,重压在他身上。
Because to every purpose there is time and judgment, therefore the misery of man is great upon him.

8:7 他不知道将来的事,因为将来如何,谁能告诉他呢。
For he knoweth not that which shall be: for who can tell him when it shall be?

8:8 无人有权力掌管生命,将生命留住。也无人有权力掌管死期。这场争战,无人能免,邪恶也不能救那好行邪恶的人。
There is no man that hath power over the spirit to retain the spirit; neither hath he power in the day of death: and there is no discharge in that war; neither shall wickedness deliver those that are given to it.

8:9 这一切我都见过。也专心查考日光之下所作的一切事。有时这人管辖那人,令人受害。
All this have I seen, and applied my heart unto every work that is done under the sun: there is a time wherein one man ruleth over another to his own hurt.

8:10 我见恶人埋葬,归入坟墓。又见行正直事的,离开圣地,在城中被人忘记。这也是虚空。
And so I saw the wicked buried, who had come and gone from the place of the holy, and they were forgotten in the city where they had so done: this is also vanity.

8:11 因为断定罪名,不立刻施刑,所以世人满心作恶。
Because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily, therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil.

8:12 罪人虽然作恶百次,倒享长久的年日。然而我准知道,敬畏神的,就是在他面前敬畏的人,终久必得福乐。
Though a sinner do evil an hundred times, and his days be prolonged, yet surely I know that it shall be well with them that fear God, which fear before him:

8:13 恶人却不得福乐,也不得长久的年日。这年日好像影儿,因他不敬畏神。
But it shall not be well with the wicked, neither shall he prolong his days, which are as a shadow; because he feareth not before God.

8:14 世上有一件虚空的事,就是义人所遭遇的,反照恶人所行的。又有恶人所遭遇的,反照义人所行的。我说,这也是虚空。
There is a vanity which is done upon the earth; that there be just men, unto whom it happeneth according to the work of the wicked; again, there be wicked men, to whom it happeneth according to the work of the righteous: I said that this also is vanity.

8:15 我就称赞快乐,原来人在日光之下,莫强如吃喝快乐。因为他在日光之下,神赐他的年日,要从劳碌中,时常享受所得的。
Then I commended mirth, because a man hath no better thing under the sun, than to eat, and to drink, and to be merry: for that shall abide with him of his labour the days of his life, which God giveth him under the sun.

8:16 我专心求智慧,要看世上所作的事。(有昼夜不睡觉,不合眼的)。
When I applied mine heart to know wisdom, and to see the business that is done upon the earth: (for also there is that neither day nor night seeth sleep with his eyes:)

8:17 我就看明神一切的作为。知道人查不出日光之下所作的事。任凭他费多少力寻查,都查不出来。就是智慧人虽想知道,也是查不出来。
Then I beheld all the work of God, that a man cannot find out the work that is done under the sun: because though a man labour to seek it out, yet he shall not find it; yea farther; though a wise man think to know it, yet shall he not be able to find it.

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 9 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )

9:1 我将一切事放在心上,详细考究,就知道义人和智慧人,并他们的作为,都在神手中。或是爱,或是恨,都在他们的前面,人不能知道。
For all this I considered in my heart even to declare all this, that the righteous, and the wise, and their works, are in the hand of God: no man knoweth either love or hatred by all that is before them.

9:2 凡临到众人的事,都是一样。义人和恶人,都遭遇一样的事。好人,洁净人和不洁净人,献祭的与不献祭的,也是一样。好人如何,罪人也如何。起誓的如何,怕起誓的也如何。
All things come alike to all: there is one event to the righteous, and to the wicked; to the good and to the clean, and to the unclean; to him that sacrificeth, and to him that sacrificeth not: as is the good, so is the sinner; and he that sweareth, as he that feareth an oath.

9:3 在日光之下所行的一切事上,有一件祸患,就是众人所遭遇的,都是一样。并且世人的心,充满了恶。活着的时候心里狂妄,后来就归死人那里去了。
This is an evil among all things that are done under the sun, that there is one event unto all: yea, also the heart of the sons of men is full of evil, and madness is in their heart while they live, and after that they go to the dead.

9:4 与一切活人相连的,那人还有指望。因为活着的狗,比死了的狮子更强。
For to him that is joined to all the living there is hope: for a living dog is better than a dead lion.

9:5 活着的人,知道必死。死了的人,毫无所知。也不在得赏赐,他们的名无人记念。
For the living know that they shall die: but the dead know not any thing, neither have they any more a reward; for the memory of them is forgotten.

9:6 他们的爱,他们的恨,他们的嫉妒,早都消灭了。在日光之下所行的一切事上,他们永不再有分了。
Also their love, and their hatred, and their envy, is now perished; neither have they any more a portion for ever in any thing that is done under the sun.

9:7 你只管去欢欢喜喜吃你的饭。心中快乐喝你的酒。因为神已经悦纳你的作为。
Go thy way, eat thy bread with joy, and drink thy wine with a merry heart; for God now accepteth thy works.

9:8 你的衣服当时常洁白。你头上也不要缺少膏油。
Let thy garments be always white; and let thy head lack no ointment.

9:9 在你一生虚空的年日,就是神赐你在日光之下虚空的年日,当同你所爱的妻,快活度日。因为那是你生前,在日光之下劳碌的事上所得的分。
Live joyfully with the wife whom thou lovest all the days of the life of thy vanity, which he hath given thee under the sun, all the days of thy vanity: for that is thy portion in this life, and in thy labour which thou takest under the sun.

9:10 凡你手所当作的事,要尽力去作。因为在你所必去的阴间,没有工作,没有谋算,没有知识,也没有智慧。
Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might; for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave, whither thou goest.

9:11 我又转念,见日光之下,快跑的未必能嬴,力战的未必得胜,智慧的未必得粮食,明哲的未必得赀财,灵巧的未必得喜悦。所临到众人的,是在乎当时的机会。
I returned, and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all.

9:12 原来人也不知道自己的定期。鱼被恶网圈住,鸟被网罗捉住,祸患忽然临到的时候,世人陷在其中,也是如此。
For man also knoweth not his time: as the fishes that are taken in an evil net, and as the birds that are caught in the snare; so are the sons of men snared in an evil time, when it falleth suddenly upon them.

9:13 我见日光之下有一样智慧,据我看乃是广大,
This wisdom have I seen also under the sun, and it seemed great unto me:

9:14 就是有一小城,其中的人数稀少,有大君王来攻击,修筑营垒,将城围困。
There was a little city, and few men within it; and there came a great king against it, and besieged it, and built great bulwarks against it:

9:15 城中有一个贫穷的智慧人,他用智慧救了那城,却没有人记念那穷人。
Now there was found in it a poor wise man, and he by his wisdom delivered the city; yet no man remembered that same poor man.

9:16 我就说,智慧胜过勇力。然而那贫穷人的智慧,被人藐视,他的话也无人听从。
Then said I, Wisdom is better than strength: nevertheless the poor man’s wisdom is despised, and his words are not heard.

9:17 宁可在安静之中听智慧人的言语,不听掌管愚昧人的喊声。
The words of wise men are heard in quiet more than the cry of him that ruleth among fools.

9:18 智慧胜过打仗的兵器。但一个罪人,能败坏许多善事。
Wisdom is better than weapons of war: but one sinner destroyeth much good.

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 10 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )

10:1 死苍蝇,使作香的膏油发出臭气。这样,一点愚昧,也能败坏智慧和尊荣。
Dead flies cause the ointment of the apothecary to send forth a stinking savour: so doth a little folly him that is in reputation for wisdom and honour.

10:2 智慧人的心居右。愚昧人的心居左。
A wise man’s heart is at his right hand; but a fool’s heart at his left.

10:3 并且愚昧人行路,显出无知。对众人说,他是愚昧人。
Yea also, when he that is a fool walketh by the way, his wisdom faileth him, and he saith to every one that he is a fool.

10:4 掌权者的心,若向你发怒,不要离开你的本位,因为柔和能免大过。
If the spirit of the ruler rise up against thee, leave not thy place; for yielding pacifieth great offences.

10:5 我见日光之下,有一件祸患,似乎出于掌权的错误,
There is an evil which I have seen under the sun, as an error which proceedeth from the ruler:

10:6 就是愚昧人立在高位。富足人坐在低位。
Folly is set in great dignity, and the rich sit in low place.

10:7 我见过仆人骑马,王子像仆人在地上步行。
I have seen servants upon horses, and princes walking as servants upon the earth.

10:8 挖陷坑的,自己必掉在其中。拆墙垣的,必被蛇所咬。
He that diggeth a pit shall fall into it; and whoso breaketh an hedge, a serpent shall bite him.

10:9 凿开(或作挪移)石头的,必受损伤。擘开木头的,必遭危险。
Whoso removeth stones shall be hurt therewith; and he that cleaveth wood shall be endangered thereby.

10:10 铁器钝了,若不将刃磨快,就必多费气力。但得智慧指教,便有益处。
If the iron be blunt, and he do not whet the edge, then must he put to more strength: but wisdom is profitable to direct.

10:11 未行法术以先,蛇若咬人,后行法术也是无益。
Surely the serpent will bite without enchantment; and a babbler is no better.

10:12 智慧人的口,说出恩言。愚昧人的嘴,吞灭自己。
The words of a wise man’s mouth are gracious; but the lips of a fool will swallow up himself.

10:13 他口中的言语,起头是愚昧。他话的末尾,是奸恶的狂妄。
The beginning of the words of his mouth is foolishness: and the end of his talk is mischievous madness.

10:14 愚昧人多有言语,人却不知将来有什么事。他身后的事,谁能告诉他呢。
A fool also is full of words: a man cannot tell what shall be; and what shall be after him, who can tell him?

10:15 凡愚昧人,他的劳碌使自己困乏。因为连进城的路他也不知道。
The labour of the foolish wearieth every one of them, because he knoweth not how to go to the city.

10:16 邦国阿,你的王若是孩童,你的群臣早晨宴乐,你就有祸了。
Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child, and thy princes eat in the morning!

10:17 邦国阿,你的王若是贵胄之子,你的群臣按时吃喝,为要捕力,不为酒醉,你就有福了。
Blessed art thou, O land, when thy king is the son of nobles, and thy princes eat in due season, for strength, and not for drunkenness!

10:18 因人懒惰,房顶塌下。因人手懒,房屋滴漏。
By much slothfulness the building decayeth; and through idleness of the hands the house droppeth through.

10:19 设摆筵席,是为喜笑。酒能使人快活,钱能叫万事应心。
A feast is made for laughter, and wine maketh merry: but money answereth all things.

10:20 你不可咒诅君王,也不可心怀此念。在你卧房也不可咒诅富户。因为空中的鸟,必传扬这声音。有翅膀的,也必述说这事。
Curse not the king, no not in thy thought; and curse not the rich in thy bedchamber: for a bird of the air shall carry the voice, and that which hath wings shall tell the matter.

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 11 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )

11:1 当将你的粮食撒在水面,因为日久必能得着。
Cast thy bread upon the waters: for thou shalt find it after many days.

11:2 你要分给七人,或分给八人,因为你不知道将来有什么灾祸临到地上。
Give a portion to seven, and also to eight; for thou knowest not what evil shall be upon the earth.

11:3 云若满了雨,就必倾倒在地上。树若向南倒,或向北倒,树倒在何处,就存在何处。
If the clouds be full of rain, they empty themselves upon the earth: and if the tree fall toward the south, or toward the north, in the place where the tree falleth, there it shall be.

11:4 看风的必不撒种。望云的必不收割。
He that observeth the wind shall not sow; and he that regardeth the clouds shall not reap.

11:5 风从何道来,骨头在怀孕妇人的胎中如何长成,你尚且不得知道,这样,行万事之神的作为,你更不得知道。
As thou knowest not what is the way of the spirit, nor how the bones do grow in the womb of her that is with child: even so thou knowest not the works of God who maketh all.

11:6 早晨要撒你的种,晚上也不歇你的手,因为你不知那一样发旺,或是早撒的,或是晚撒的,或是两样都好。
In the morning sow thy seed, and in the evening withhold not thine hand: for thou knowest not whether shall prosper, either this or that, or whether they both shall be alike good.

11:7 光本是佳美的,眼见日光也是可悦的。
Truly the light is sweet, and a pleasant thing it is for the eyes to behold the sun:

11:8 人活多年,就当快乐多年。然而也当想到黑暗的日子,因为这日子必多,所要来的都是虚空。
But if a man live many years, and rejoice in them all; yet let him remember the days of darkness; for they shall be many. All that cometh is vanity.

11:9 少年人哪,你在幼年时当快乐。在幼年的日子,使你的心欢畅,行你心所愿行的,看你眼所爱看的,却要知道,为这一切的事,神必审问你。
Rejoice, O young man, in thy youth; and let thy heart cheer thee in the days of thy youth, and walk in the ways of thine heart, and in the sight of thine eyes: but know thou, that for all these things God will bring thee into judgment.

11:10 所以你当从心中除掉愁烦。从肉体克去邪恶。因为一生的开端,和幼年之时,都是虚空的。
Therefore remove sorrow from thy heart, and put away evil from thy flesh: for childhood and youth are vanity.

旧约 — 传道书(Ecclesiastes) — 第 12 章 ( 本篇共有 12 章 )

12:1 你趁着年幼,衰败的日子尚未来到,就是你所说,我毫无喜乐的那些年日未曾临近之先,当记念造你的主。
Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth, while the evil days come not, nor the years draw nigh, when thou shalt say, I have no pleasure in them;

12:2 不要等到日头,光明,月亮,星宿,变为黑暗,雨后云彩反回,
While the sun, or the light, or the moon, or the stars, be not darkened, nor the clouds return after the rain:

12:3 看守房屋的发颤,有力的屈身,推磨的稀少就止息,从窗户往外看的都昏暗,
In the day when the keepers of the house shall tremble, and the strong men shall bow themselves, and the grinders cease because they are few, and those that look out of the windows be darkened,

12:4 街门关闭,推磨的响声微小,雀鸟一叫,人就起来,唱歌的女子,也都衰微,
And the doors shall be shut in the streets, when the sound of the grinding is low, and he shall rise up at the voice of the bird, and all the daughters of musick shall be brought low;

12:5 人怕高处,路上有惊慌,杏树开花,蚱蜢成为重担,人所愿的也都废掉,因为人归他永远的家,吊丧的在街上往来,
Also when they shall be afraid of that which is high, and fears shall be in the way, and the almond tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper shall be a burden, and desire shall fail: because man goeth to his long home, and the mourners go about the streets:

12:6 银链折断,金罐破裂,瓶子在泉旁损坏,水轮在井口破烂,
Or ever the silver cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be broken at the fountain, or the wheel broken at the cistern.

12:7 尘土仍归于地,灵仍归于赐灵的神。
Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.

12:8 传道者说,虚空的虚空,凡事都是虚空。
Vanity of vanities, saith the preacher; all is vanity.

12:9 在者,传道者因为有智慧,仍将知识教训众人。又默想,又考查,又陈说许多箴言。
And moreover, because the preacher was wise, he still taught the people knowledge; yea, he gave good heed, and sought out, and set in order many proverbs.

12:10 传道者专心寻求可喜悦的言语,是凭正直写的诚实话。
The preacher sought to find out acceptable words: and that which was written was upright, even words of truth.

12:11 智慧人的言语,好像刺棍。会中之师的言语,又像钉稳的钉子。都是一个牧者所赐的。
The words of the wise are as goads, and as nails fastened by the masters of assemblies, which are given from one shepherd.

12:12 我儿,还有一层,你当受劝戒。着书多,没有穷尽。读书多,身体疲倦。
And further, by these, my son, be admonished: of making many books there is no end; and much study is a weariness of the flesh.

12:13 这些事都已听见了。总意就是敬畏神,谨守他的诫命,这是人所当尽的本分。(或作这是众人的本分)
Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man.

12:14 因为人所作的事,连一切隐藏的事,无论是善是恶,神都必审问。
For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil.

美国科幻小说精选集《献给阿尔吉侬的花》

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北京的 三联书店里看到这书,当时有些吃惊,不仅仅是因为看见了这书的中文版—我多年前读过这本小说的原版<Flowers forAlgernon>,向很多人推荐过,还是因为这书很厚,原版只有短短的几十页而已,很浅显易懂的英语,几乎大多数能读英语的都可以读懂,很 快就能看完。打开一翻,才发现《献给阿尔吉侬的花》只是这本书里11个科幻故事里的一篇。不过大概因为《献给阿尔吉侬的花》实在太出色了,所以这个合集采 用了它的名字。

初次读到这本《献给阿尔吉侬的花》实在是偶然:我当时在巴黎,马上要回国,国内的一个朋友让我帮他到巴黎Rivoli街上的一家知名英文书店带两本书,一本是这个,另外一本是影响更大的奥威尔名著<The Animal Farm>。回国的飞机上,我把这两本书都读完了。看完《献给阿尔吉侬的花》最后一句,心情黯然神伤,并自此喜欢上了科幻文学。

既然是小说,我这里的介绍不便透露故事情节。我只能说,这个由美国科幻与奇幻作家协会精选的11个故事都不长,每个10几页到3、40页不等,每个都很吸引人,我个人最喜欢的,当然是Daniel Keys的《献给阿尔吉侬的花》、和Roger Zelazny的《致传道书的玫瑰》(巧了,两本书名都是向某某致意的花)。

只要是文学,就必须有打动人心的力量,仅凭天马行空的想象力是不足以成为好的科幻作品的。它们所以畅销,基本上有两个原因:一是让人逃离现实,跟作者 一起幻想未来;其次就是让人从未来反省现在。科幻中归根结底最有意思的还是人类自己、人性本身。本书11个 故事中,有的写人类与外星文明的相遇,如何用 智慧与勇气求得共存或消灭邪恶;有的讴歌如何用爱救赎濒于灭绝的异星文明;有的鞭挞美苏冷战、揭露核战争的残 酷;有的痛斥科技的冷漠无情以及警告人类不能变成科技的奴隶与囚犯;有的让人掩卷深思智慧与文明的意义;有的揭示出孩子们的奇特思维可能是开启平行世界的 钥匙;有的歌颂人性中伟大的善良。

总的来说,这本科幻小说集还是很值得一读的,飞机上打发时间最合适。刘冉译,新星出版社2014年7月出版,353页。

如果你要是因为这本书喜欢上科幻小说,可别忘了我啊!

历史留给我们什么教训?

这本《历史的教训》(英文名:The lessons of History)名气很大,原因有三:
1、去年10月中央政治局专门组织集体学习吸取历史教训,总书记习近平作出重要指示:牢记历史经验、牢记历史教训、牢记历史警示,为推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化提供有益借鉴。他强调,历史是最好的老师。
该书译成于去年9月,今年1月出版。
2、今年一月,中纪委监察部官方网站向全国党员干部、公务员、机关团体的推荐该图书。
3、本书作者大有来头:杜兰特是美国当代知名哲学家、历史学家,与胡适师兄弟,两人都师从大哲学家杜威;获得过美国普利策奖、自由勋章;曾耗 费50年完成了共11卷、1500万字的《世界文明史》。本书即是这本“20世纪离骚”巨著的随笔感悟,写于1968年,可谓精华。
其实这书并不厚,183页,还包括了很多插图,几个小时就能读完。值得一提的是,文笔非常优美,倪玉平、张闶译的中文让人产生了强烈的读原文的欲望,冯克利、晏绍祥审校。首都博物馆馆长郭小凌作序。(不知道这些人有没有参加那次学习。)
因为是智慧结晶,很多句子虽然很短但也含义隽永,要动脑子才能搞明白作者的意思。对全世界很多段历史的比较深入浅出,全书值得反复阅读。
全书共分13章,分别就地球地理、生物学、种族、性格、 道德体系、宗教信仰、经济活动、社会主义、政体、战争等因素对历史的影响做出了宏观总结,最后以文明是否进步、如何消亡死去结束。
那么,问题来了,中纪委为何向全国党员及领导干部推荐这本书呢?党希望全国的精英们从历史中吸取什么教训呢?
本人绝非精英,斗胆按书里章节顺序小结并摘录些片段,仅供参考:
该书一开头就提出,研究历史有什么用?能帮助治理国家、预测未来吗?“只有愚蠢的人才会试图把100个世纪的历史浓缩进100页的书中,并进而得出不可靠的结论。我们就试试吧。”大学问家的谦虚与信心跃然纸上。
“地球与历史”这一章说明,地理环境及人类对环境的掌控能力、主要是交通方式的发展,深刻地影响着文明的创造和历史的变迁。
“生物学与历史”指出“物竞天择、适者生存”是所有生物包括人类的最终法则,文明即是竞争,生存是残酷的,完全凭实力而不是善心;而战争是把 人性发挥到极致的国家间的终极竞争形式;人生来即是不平等的,所谓平等自由都是笑话,弱者要平等,强者要自由,人与人之间、国与国之间永远是弱肉强食。人 口是不同种族、国家、文明之间竞争的重要手段,“在生育方面,生理上的健康可能比智力上的优越更有价值”,繁衍是生命的本质;如果人类繁衍过快,会有饥 荒、瘟疫和战争种种手段进行调控。
“种族与历史”先是批判了“白人至上说”,“历史就是个色盲,任何肤色的人,都可能发展出一种文明(只要环境适宜)”,“南方人创造文明,北 方人就征服它、毁灭它、借鉴它、传播它:这是对历史的一个简要概括。”作者指出,融合是历史大趋势,“文明是合作的产物,几乎所有的民族都对此有所贡献; 这是我们共同的遗产和债务;受过教育的心灵,都会善待每位男女,不论他们的地位多么低下,因为每一个人,都对所属种族的文明做出过创造性的贡献。”
“性格与历史”里先表示,作为社会性动物的人的性格其实自古以来变化不大,胜者为王,“获胜的反叛者会采用他们过去习惯于谴责的方法”,虽然 时势造英雄,而且模仿与创新相辅相成,但“历史大体上是由求新的少数人之间的冲突造成的,大多数人只为胜利者鼓掌欢呼,并充当社会实验的人类原材料”。这 一章里最后一段意味深长:“那些抗拒改变的保守派,与提出改变的激进派具有同等价值—甚至可能更有价值,因为根须深厚比枝叶繁茂更加重要。新的观念应该被 听取,因为少数新观念可能有用。但新观念必须经过异议 、反对以及轻蔑的研磨,这也是对的。这是新观念被允许进入人类赛场之前必须存在的预赛。老年人抵制年轻人,与年轻人刺激老年人,都是对的。经过这样的对 抗,就像两性冲突和阶级斗争一样,才能产生充满张力的创造性力量,才能带来富有活力的发展,才能产生整体隐而不彰的基本统一与运动。”各位听好了,力量的 制衡至关重要!
“道德与历史”强调,道德是社会运行的软规则,对国家的治理与法律同等重要,两者缺一不可。(就像一个企业里企业文化与规章制度同等重要一样。)
“宗教与历史”先是回顾了宗教的发展过程与历史影响,从侧面说明了,任何能对人心产生影响的东西都有政治力量;最后一针见血地指出,“如果社 会主义不能消灭民众的相对贫穷,这个新的宗教就将失去它的狂热和效果,国家也许就会默许恢复超自然的信仰,以此来缓和不满。只要有贫穷,就会有神灵。”
第八章“经济与历史”非常重要。杜兰特先是反驳了马克思“经济是历史唯一推动力”的说法,诚然,财只是手段,权才是最终目的,但他仍然指出了 对经济活动尤其是金融界要高度重视,“劳心者治人,劳力者治于人,但治钱者治一切”;人不患贫而患不均,国家管理者尤其要重视财富分配问题:“在不断进步 的社会中,这种(财富的)集中程度可能会达到一个临界点,众多穷人数量上的力量与少数富人能力上的力量势均力敌,此时不稳定的平衡便会造成危险局势。历史 对此有不同的应对方式,或者是通过立法,用和平的手段重新分配财富;或者是通过革命,用暴力的手段强行分配贫困。”这是一个强烈信号。滚吧,李嘉诚们!但 中国为什么不像书中指出的那样,对富人征收重税呢?
“社会主义与历史”总结了历史上各中央集权的社会一些宏观调控的成功与失败经验,阐述了它的优点与需要注意的地方,尤其指出了腐败的毁灭性负 面影响,打击腐败是有历史教训在先的。探讨了为什么共产主义首先在俄国取得成功,但也指出,“只需一代人,共产主义便很可能被人的本性所侵蚀。” 总设计师邓公是多么伟大!有意思的是,作者在1968年就预见社会主义与资本主义必将走向融合:“对资本主义的恐惧,迫使社会主义放宽自由;而对社会主义 的恐惧也迫使资本主义不断增加平等。东方是西方,而西方也是东方。这一对双胞胎很快就会团聚。”
“政府与历史”大概是本书篇幅最长的一章。先从中央集权的重要性开始:“权力当然要集中于中央,因为如果这种力量遭到分割、削弱或分散,它就 无法行之有效”,然后提到,“君主制似乎是最自然的政府体制,因为它的权威适用于群体,如果我们以兴盛和持续时间来判断政府形式,那么我们该给君主制掌 声;相对而言,民主制一直是其中的插曲。”通过对奥古斯都和古罗马帝国五贤帝的统治介绍,杜兰特指出,这些成功统治的共同点是,皇帝本人没有儿子,而是靠 指派继承人的方式完成政权交接,规避了世袭制带来的各种灾难。(的确!)贵族政治是恶政,而“唯一真正的革命,是对心灵的启蒙和个性的提升;唯一真正的革 命者,是哲学家和圣人。”(我们生活在一个哲学家治国的时代,向我们推荐这么优秀有深度的图书,多么幸运!)本章最后探讨了民主政治,指出:“在所有政府 形式中民主是最困难的一种,因为它需要最大限度地普及聪明才智,而当我们让自己变成主权者时,我们会忘记把自己变得聪明一些。。。。林肯说过:“你不可能 永远欺骗所有人。”这或许是对的,但是你可以愚弄足够多的人,以便治理一个大国。”(道德经里也说:古之善为道者,非以明民,将以愚之)。本章在论述民主 是所有政体中最好的一种、害处较少同时优点较多而结束。
“历史与战争”指出,“就像骄傲使个人更有活力一样,民族主义也可以让国家在外交和战争中更有力量。”作为一个美国人,杜兰特文中对西方民主 世界钳制共产主义的野心、双方根本性的势不两立解释的不能再明白;在提倡对话解决这个问题的同时,他也哀叹,只有在地球被外星人攻击时才会团结起来成为一 家人。
“增长与衰退”一章里,需要着重注意的是国家衰退的诸因素,再度强调财富过于集中可能造成阶级斗争或社会分裂的风险。其实,就防止阶级产生这一角度来说,我们做的相当不错。
“真有进步吗”这个结尾章节先从人性不变开始,质疑我们是否在进步;经过大量论证,作者还是乐观的,“进步就是遗产的不断丰富、保存、传播和利用”,通过教育,我们的文明在不断进步。

讣告小传:《先上讣告,后上天堂》

s2768549这本书英文版名为”The Dead Beat”, 作者是美国人Marilyn Johnson,曾为知名杂志《生活》撰稿,并为很多名人写过讣告。中文版译者李克勤,由新星出版社2007年出版,291页。

全书翻译少见的精良,内容非常幽默而又让人能从各色奇妙的人生百态中体味生死大义。可以消遣时光,又能又所得,非常值得一读。

这是一本专写讣告的书。什么是讣告?就是人死后,报刊总结其一生的文章。按书中的讣告从业人员的理解,“讣告的内容其实并非死亡。。。它的内容是生活,它们充满了生气。好的讣告如雪天冷冽纯净的空气般醉人,像眼科医师放在你面前的镜片一样,让世间的一切骤然清晰起来。杰出的讣告不少横冲直撞的巨型拖车留下的破碎辄印,也不是肆虐的狂风扫荡后的废墟—它们是死亡温和地让渡给人间的产儿。”“是对死者的敬意,缅怀这个曾在人世闪烁然后逝去的生命。但与此同时,它也是一种挑战,是向上帝或群星挥舞的拳头”。

英语世界有着不可小觑的讣告文化。很多大报刊如《纽约时报》、《经济学人》、《泰晤士报》、《环球邮报》(加拿大)都有讣告专栏和讣告主编,这些人像巨大的加工厂一样提前搜集资料把名人的讣告写好,只等其呜呼哀哉就发表;出现了知名的讣告作家(作者可能是一个)、讣告集锦而成的书籍、专门热爱讣告的读者群、网站、论坛,还有年度国际讣告大会。本书以讣告中的趣闻、轶事开头,介绍了国际讣告大会、讣告的常见结构与风格、讣告中如何婉转用词、英美各大报刊的讣告特色、名家写手如何从准备到完成讣告、网络上的讣告世界,穿插特写了911期间纽约时报及2005年伦敦公车爆炸案后泰晤士报如何将普通遇难者的讣告发展成一种风格、著名写手吉姆Ÿ尼克尔森的人生及讣告写作生涯、为普通人写的讣告,最后以一位讣告作者的死亡和给他写的讣告结尾。

欧美是个人主义至上的地方,很多写手正面歌颂一些普通凡人,而且还在采访家人中想方设法让他们回忆起死者的美好一面,抚慰、激励生者。写讣告的人,不仅仅是擅长用极小篇幅(当然,越小的东西越难写,写讣告是需要大量准备的)就让一个人跃然纸上的作家,更是亡灵安抚者,真善美的传递者。

国内讣告不是很常见,报刊上能见到的多是政治人物,语言文体绝对政治正确;古代碑文也类似讣告,但估计古文水平原因,今人能读懂和欣赏的也不多了。另外,中国人纪念古人,也容易“端着”,任何幽默琐事都可能被误解为离经叛道。

书中知名讣告写手尼克尔森退休后照顾患老年痴呆症的前妻,对作者说:“我们俩从来没有真正了解对方”。我在读这段的时候,耳机里传来一首老歌”Killing me softly”。讣告实质上是一个微缩版的传记。如果让你写一篇自己的讣告,你会怎么写?

摘录书中提到的《传道书》:

凡你手所当做的事,要尽力去做,因为在你所必去的阴间,没有工作,没有谋算,没有知识,也没有智慧。